The Vembanad - Kol region is home to a vast variety of flora and fauna including mangroves, many species of birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians.
There are about 150 species of fishes in Lake Vembanad. The estuarine nature of the lake, with its rich sediment deposits, makes it a good habitat for shrimp. Mullets, catfish and pearl fish are also seen in abundance. Freshwater prawns, Catla, Rohu (labeo rohita) and Nandan (Ambassis Thomasi) are some other fishes of commercial value.
The lime shell fishery in Lake Vembanad is one of the biggest of its kind in the country, thanks to the abundance of black clam (Villorita cyprinoids) in the shallow waters. The shell is used as a raw material for manufacturing cement, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals.